2 BILLION Dementia Patients? Medical Establishment Shocked by At-Risk Numbers on the Horizon

by Laura Gottesdiener

No one–to repeat, no one–understands how it happens. Every day, the minds of millions of high-functioning people slowly slip into another reality, one in which life events, loved ones’ faces, children’s names and all the other memories that constitute a person’s identity have disappeared. Deep inside their brains, the slide begins decades before the symptoms of dementia manifest. By the time the car keys begin to go missing, it’s already far too late.

Currently, there are about 36 million people in the world suffering from dementia. By 2050, the population at risk for the disease is expected to hit two billion, causing what experts say will be an unprecedented health care crisis that could cost $1 trillion a year in the U.S. alone.

“The scope of the looming medical-care disaster is beyond comparison with anything that has been faced during the entire history of humanity,” said Dr. Barry Greenberg, the director of strategy for the Toronto Dementia Research Alliance, in a recent talk in Canada.

Researchers have spent decades and tens of billions of dollars in searching for a treatment to Alzheimer’s, to no avail. Even before the looming health care crisis became clear, a drug that could slow or halt the chronic, terminal evaporation of a person’s memory has long been considered the Holy Grail of neuroscience research. The reasons are both economic and philosophic. Since the protracted disease is often as painful for relatives as it is for the patient, drugs are in high demand, with pharmaceutical companies projecting a $14 billion a year market by 2020. But the real reason that a treatment is so highly desired may be because the disease’s challenges the fundamental modern conception of humanity. If Descartes’ proposition, “I think, therefore I am” is accepted as what it means–at least in the Western world–to be human, then what about the projected two billion people who will soon become living, breathing entities without the capacity to remember their own thoughts?

Today, many Alzheimer’s experts are blunt about the lack of any available treatments.

“There really is nothing,” Dr. Evelyn C. Granieri told Technology Review in its recent feature on the state of Alzheimer’s research. “You don’t get better, ever.”

This medical reality hasn’t stopped the pharmaceutical industry from turning a profit by selling drugs that are, at best, only minimally effective. Since 1996, Japanese company Eisai and U.S. drug marketer Pfizer have raked in more than $2 billion on the drug Aricept, even though studies have shown the medicine to barely slow the disease. In 2012, the Federal Drug Administration caused a scandal when it approved a higher dosage of the drug–called Aricept 23 mg–so that Pfizer and Eisai could extend their copyright despite evidence that the higher dosage was no more effective and was more likely to cause gastrointestinal problems for patients.

Meanwhile, scientists and federal agencies are rushing to find a real treatment that could stave off the economic and social disaster of having a world population of two billion patients who require daily care. Last February, the National Institute of Health approved additional Alzheimer’s research funding.

“We can’t wait to act,” Kathleen Sebelius, the U.S. health and human services secretary, said upon the announcement.

A new round of clinical trials focused on preventing the onset of the disease–rather than treating it once it has already begun–are beginning this winter. Scientists hope that these trials will demonstrate that the disease’s progression can be interrupted, that the chronic deterioration of patients’ memories can be stopped if the disease is attacked early enough.

This goal faces many challenges. There are numerous genetic mutations of Alzheimer’s, which requires scientists to match clinical trials with the appropriate patients. The disease often lies dormant for decades in a patient’s cerebral spinal fluids before it begins to affect one’s cognitive functioning, prompting scientists to ask just how early the intervention must occur. And all the while, the clock is ticking–not just for individual patients, but also for the entire health care system, prompting some scientists to call for a suspension of the private, profit-based research model in favor of a global, public-private program.

“The medical-care system is going to be bankrupt by 2050 if we don’t figure out a way to delay or treat Alzheimer’s disease,” Greenberg told Technology Review.

“The competitive marketplace,” he says, “was not conceived to overcome problems of this magnitude.”

Related:  How Long Do You Trust an Alzheimer’s Relative with the Car Keys?

Alzheimer’s could be the most catastrophic impact of junk food

The Guardian
by George Monbiot

When you raise the subject of over-eating and obesity, you often see people at their worst. The comment threads discussing these issues reveal a legion of bullies who appear to delight in other people’s problems.

When alcoholism and drug addiction are discussed, the tone tends to be sympathetic. When obesity is discussed, the conversation is dominated by mockery and blame, though the evidence suggests that it may be driven by similar forms of addiction.

I suspect that much of this mockery is a coded form of snobbery: the strong association between poor diets and poverty allows people to use this issue as a cipher for something else they want to say, which is less socially acceptable.

But this problem belongs to all of us. Even if you can detach yourself from the suffering caused by diseases arising from bad diets, you will carry the cost, as a growing proportion of the health budget will be used to address them. The cost – measured in both human suffering and money – could be far greater than we imagined. A large body of evidence now suggests that Alzheimer’s is primarily a metabolic disease. Some scientists have gone so far as to rename it: they call it type 3 diabetes.

New Scientist carried this story on its cover on 1 September; since then I’ve been sitting in the library, trying to discover whether it stands up. I’ve now read dozens of papers on the subject, testing my cognitive powers to the limit as I’ve tried to get to grips with brain chemistry. Though the story is by no means complete, the evidence so far is compelling.

About 35 million people suffer from Alzheimer’s disease worldwide; current projections, based on the rate at which the population ages, suggest that this will rise to 100 million by 2050. But if, as many scientists now believe, it is caused largely by the brain’s impaired response to insulin, the numbers could rise much further. In the United States, the percentage of the population with type 2 diabetes, which is strongly linked to obesity, has almost trebled in 30 years. If Alzheimer’s, or “type 3 diabetes”, goes the same way, the potential for human suffering is incalculable.

Insulin is the hormone that prompts the liver, muscles and fat to absorb sugar from the blood. Type 2 diabetes is caused by excessive blood glucose, resulting either from a deficiency of insulin produced by the pancreas, or resistance to its signals by the organs that would usually take up the glucose.

The association between Alzheimer’s and type 2 diabetes is long-established: type 2 sufferers are two to three times more likely to be struck by this form of dementia than the general population. There are also associations between Alzheimer’s and obesity and Alzheimer’s and metabolic syndrome (a complex of diet-related pathologies).

Researchers first proposed that Alzheimer’s was another form of diabetes in 2005. The authors of the original paper investigated the brains of 54 corpses, 28 of which belonged to people who had died of the disease. They found that the levels of both insulin and insulin-like growth factors in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients were much lower than those in the brains of people who had died of other causes. Levels were lowest in the parts of the brain most affected by the disease.

Their work led them to conclude that insulin and insulin-like growth factor are produced not only in the pancreas but also in the brain. Insulin in the brain has a host of functions: as well as glucose metabolism, it helps to regulate the transmission of signals from one nerve cell to another, and affects their growth, plasticity and survival.

Experiments conducted since then seem to support the link between diet and dementia, and researchers have begun to propose potential mechanisms. In common with all brain chemistry, these tend to be fantastically complex, involving, among other impacts, inflammation, stress caused by oxidation, the accumulation of one kind of brain protein and the transformation of another. I would need the next six pages of this paper even to begin to explain them, and would doubtless get it wrong (if you’re interested, please follow the links on my website).

Plenty of research still needs to be done. But, if the current indications are correct, Alzheimer’s disease could be another catastrophic impact of the junk food industry, and the worst discovered so far. Our governments, as they are in the face of all our major crises, seem to be incapable of responding.

In this country, as in many others, the government’s answer to the multiple disasters caused by the consumption of too much sugar and fat is to call on both companies and consumers to regulate themselves. Before he was replaced by someone even worse, the former health secretary, Andrew Lansley, handed much of the responsibility for improving the nation’s diet to food and drink companies – a strategy that would work only if they volunteered to abandon much of their business.

A scarcely regulated food industry can engineer its products – loading them with fat, salt, sugar and high-fructose corn syrup – to bypass the neurological signals that would otherwise prompt people to stop eating. It can bombard both adults and children with advertising. It can (as we discovered yesterday) use the freedom granted to academy schools to sell the chocolate, sweets and fizzy drinks now banned from sale in maintained schools. It can kill off the only effective system (the traffic-light label) for informing people how much fat, sugar and salt their food contains. Then it can turn to the government and blame consumers for eating the products it sells. This is class war, a war against the poor fought by the executive class in government and industry.

We cannot yet state unequivocally that poor diet is a leading cause of Alzheimer’s disease, though we can say that the evidence is strong and growing. But if ever there was a case for the precautionary principle, here it is. It’s not as if we lose anything by eating less rubbish. Averting a possible epidemic of this devastating disease means taking on the bullies – both those who mock people for their pathology and those who spread the pathology by peddling a lethal diet.

Top Food Additives You Really Need to Avoid

Technorati.com, Dec. 27, 2010

The vast majorities of processed foods are packed with calories and have been stripped of any nutrients that we require to maintain optimal health. Over the course of years and decades, the lack of vitamins and minerals from natural foods slowly leads to chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, cancer, dementia and heart disease.

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