Dr. Ralph Walton’s Compiled List of Non Industry-Funded Studies of Aspartame

ADVERSE REACTIONS IDENTIFIED ASPARTAME RESEARCH STUDIES

( Non-Industry Sponsored or Funded )

A portion of the study of Ralph Walton’s Correlation of Outcome and Funding Sources

Note:  This list does not contain all studies demonstrating adverse effects of aspartame.  For example, this list does not include the three Soffritti cancer studies.

DATE

Researcher/Research Findings/Publication
Adverse Reaction Identified
Funding Source

1970
#1
Olney, JW
Brain Damage in Infant Mice Following Oral Intake og Glutamate, Asparate, or Cysteine.
Nature 1970;227-609-610.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Washington University

1975
#2
Olney, JW
Aspartame as a Sweetner
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Washington University
School of Medicine

1977
#3
Mishiro Y, Kaneko II
Effect of Dipeptide, Aspartame on Lactic Acid Production in Human Whole Saliva
Journal Dental Res 1977;56(11);1427
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Nippon Dental University, Japan

1979
#4
Brunner, RL, Vorhees CV, Kinney L, Butcher, RE
et.al.
Aspartame: Assesment of Developmental Psychotoxicity of a New Artificial Sweetner
Neurobehavorial Toxicology 1979;1:79-86.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
FDA

1979
#4
Stegink LD, Filer LJ, Baker GL
Effects of Aspartame loading upon plasma and erthyrocyte amino acid levels in phenylketonuria heterozygotes and normal adult aubjects. *See further observation study done in 1990.
Journal Nutrition 109:708-717
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
None Specified

1979
#5
Olney JW
Brain Damage in Mice from Voluntary Ingestion of Glutamate and Asparate
Neurobehavorial Toxicology and Teraology 1980;2:125-129.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Washington University

1982
#6
Uribe
Potential Toxiocity of a New Sugar Substitute in Patients with Liver Disease
New England Journal of Medicine 1982; 173-174
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
M.I.T.

1983
#7
Wurtman, RJ
Effects of Aspartame and Glucose on Rat Brain Amino Acids and Serotonin
New England Journal of Medicine 1983; 309(7) 429-430
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
M.I.T.

1983
#8
Wurtman, RJ
Neurological Changes Following High Dose Aspartame with Dietary Carbohydrates
New England Journal of Medicine 1983;309(7):429-430
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
M.I.T.

1984
#9
Olney, JW
Excitotoxic Food Additives – Revelance of Animal Studies to Human Safety
Neurobehavorial Toxicology and Teratology. 1984;6:455-462
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Research Science Award
M.I.T.

1984
#10
Monte
Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Health
Journal Applied Nutrition 36(1):42-54.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Arizone State University
M.I.T.

1984
#11
Yokogoshi H, Roberts CH, Canballero B, Wurtman RJ,
Effects of Aspartame and Glucose Adminstration on Brain and Plasma Levels of LArge Neural Amino ACids and Brain 5-Hydroxyindoles
American Journal Clinical Nutrition 1984:40:1-7.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
M.I.T

1984
#12
Mahalik MP, Gautieri RF
Reflex Responsiveness of CF-1 Mouse Neonates Following Maternal Aspartame Exposure
Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry & Behavior, 1984:9(4):385-403.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
None Specified

1985
#12
Novick
Aspartame Induced Granilomatous Panniculitis
Annual Internal Medicine, 102(2):206-207.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Mt. Sinai
Medical Center

1985
#13
Grobelny D, Galardy RE
A Metabolite of Aspartame Inhibits Angiostein Converting Enzynme
Biochemical & BioPhysical Research Communications, 1985:128(2):960-964
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
University of Kentucky

1985
#14
Wurtman RJ
Aspartame: Possible Effects on Seizure Suspectibility
Lancet, 1985;2(8463):1060
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
M.I.T.

1985
#15
Ferguson A Jr.
Interaction of Aspartame and Carbohydrates in an Eating Disordered Patient
American Journal Psych 1985, Feb. 142(2):271
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
None

1986
#16
Kulczycki A Jr.
Aspartame Induced Urticaria
Annual Internal Medicine 1986:104(2):207-208
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Institute
Of Health

1986
#17
Pardridge WM
The Safety of Aspartame (Letter)
JAMA, 1986:256(19):2678
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
UCLA School
Of Medicine

1986
#18
Koehler SM,
A New Dietary Caution for Migraine Sufferers Aspartame
– Applied Nutition 1986;1:1-7
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Center for Brain Sciences and Metabolism, Charitable Trust & University of Florida

1986
#19
Kiritsky and Maher TJ
Accute Effects of Aspartame on Systolic Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Rats.
– Journal of Neural Transmission 1986;66(2): 121-128
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Institute of Neurological, Communicative Diseases and Stroke

1986
#20
Yukogoshi II and Wurtman RJ
Acute Effects of Oral or Parenteral Aspartame on Catecholamine Metabolism in Various Regions of Rat Brain – Journal of Nutrition 1986; 116:356-364
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
M.I.T.

1986
#21
Walton,
Seizure and Mania After High Intake of Aspartame.
– Psychosomatics 27:218-220
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Chautauqua County Dept. of Mental Health M.I.T.

1986
#22
Drake ME, Panic Attacks and Excessive Aspartame Ingestion (Letter).
– Lancet 1986;2(8507):631
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
None

1986
#23
Johns DR, Migraine Provoked by Aspartame.
– New England Journal of Medicine 1986:315(7):456
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
None

1986
#24
Blundell JE, Hill AJ,
Paradoxial Effects of Intense Sweetner Aspartame on Appetite
– Lancet 1986;(8489):1092-3
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
None

1987
#25
Caballero B, Mahon BE, Rohr Fl, Levy IlL, Wurtman RJ, et. al.,
Plasma Amino Acid Levels After Single Dose Aspartame Consumption in Phenylketonuria Mild II Hyperphenylalaninemia and Heterozygous State for Phenylkeonuria.
– Journal of Pediatrics 1986; 109(4):668-67 I.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Institute of Neurological Communicate Diseases and Stroke

1987
#26
Bradstock MK, Serdula MK, Marks IS, et al. Evaluation of Reactions to Food Additives: The Aspartame Experience American Journal Clinical Nutrition 1986 Mar;43(3):464-9
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Federal Government

1987
#27
Coulombe PA Jr., Sharma R P
Neurobiochemical Alterations Induced by the
Artificial Sweetner Aspartame.
– Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1986;83(1):79-85
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Utah State University

1987
#28
Wurtman RI,
Aspartame Effects on Brain Serotonin.
– American Journal Clinical Nutrition 1987 April; 45(4):799-803
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
M.I.T.

1987
#29
Maher TJ and Wurtman RJ,
Neurologic Effects of Aspartame A Widely Used Food Additive
– Environmental Health Perspectives 1987;75:53-57
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
M.I.T. and Federal Govt.

1987
#30
Drogari E., Smith I, Beasley M, Lloyd JK
Timing of Strict Diet Relation to Fetal Damage in Maternal Phenylketonoruia An International Collaborative Study by MRC/DISS Phenylketonurioa Register
– Lancet, 1987;2(8565):927-30
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Institute of Child Health

1987
#31
Elsas, et al.
Changes in Physiological Concentrations of Blood Phenylalanine Produce Changes in
Human Brain Function.
– Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function, Birkhauser, Boston 1988; 187-195
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Emory University

1988
#32
Roberts;
Neurological, Psychiatric and Behavioral Reactions to Aspartame in 505 Aspartame Reactors.
In: Wurtman and Ritter-Walker (eds.). dietary Phenylalamine and Brain Function. Boston: Birkhauser, 1988, pp 373-376
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Palm Beach Institute for Medical Research

1988
#33
Pinto and Maher
Aspartame, Phenylalanine and Seizures in Experimental Animals.
– In: Wurtman and Ritter-Walker (eds) Dietary Phenylalamine and Brain Function Boston: Birkhauser,1988 pp. 96-103
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke

1988
#34
Roberts
Reactions Attributed to Aspartame Containing Products: 551 Cases Journal of Applied Nutrition 1988; 40: 85-94
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Palm Beach Institute for Medical Research

1988
#35
Neurologic Pshychiatric and Behavorial Reactions to Aspartame in 505 Aspartame Reactors. In: Wuirtman and Ritter-Walker (eds.)
Distery Phenylalanine and Brain Function. Boston:Buckharuser, 1988, pp.373-376
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
NONE

1988
#36
Wurtman and Maher
Calculation of Aspartame Dose for Rodents that Produces Neurochemical Effects Comparable to Those Occuring in People.
In: Wurtman and Ritter-Walker (eds) Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function Boston: Birkhauser, 1988, pp 144-148
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
M.I.T.

1988
#37
Pinto JM, Mahea TJ
Adminstration of Aspartame Potentiates Pentylenetetrazole and Fluorothy Induced Seizures in Mice
Neuropharmacology 1988;27(1):51-55
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Institute of Neurological & Communicative Diseases and Strokes

1988
#38
Walton
The Possible Role of Aspartame in Seizure Induction Proceedings of the First International Confererence on Phenylalanine and the Brain Function
In: Wurtman, R.L., Walker E. (eds) Center for Brain Sciences and Metabolism Charitable Trust, Cambridge 1987
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Chautaugua County Dept of Mental Health

1988
#39
Olney,
Excitotoxic Food Additives – Funcitonal Teratological Aspects.
In Progress in Brain Research, Vol 73 – Biochemical Basis of Functional Neuroteratolgy: Permenent Effects of Checmical on Developing Brain, edited by Boer, GI, etc. al., Elsevier, New York 1988.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Washington State University

1988
#40
Steinmetzner and Kunkel,
Aspartame and Headache *(Letter).
New England Journal of Mediciine, 1988;318(18):1201
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Cleveland Clinic

1988
#41
Spiers, et. al.
Aspartame and Human Behavior: Cognitive and Behavorial Observations,
In: Wurtman and Ritter-Walker, (eds.) Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function, Boston: Birkhauser, 1988 pp. 169-178
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Center for Brain Sciences and Metabolism Charitable Trust

1988
#42
Sardeal, et. al.
Effect of Aspartame in Diabetic Rats.
In: Wurtman and Ritter-Walker (eds.) Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function Boston: Birkhauser, 1988, pp.265-268
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Wayne State University

1988
#43
1988 Matalou, e.t. al.
Aspartame Comsumption in Normal Individuals and Carriers for Phenylketonuria
In: Wurtman and Ritter-Walkers (eds.) Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function Boston: Birkhauser, 1988, pp.41-52
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
N.I.H. and The University of Illinos

1988
#44
Guiso G., Caccia S., Vezzani Al.
Effect of Aspartame on Seisures on Various Models of Experimental Epilepsy Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1988;96:485-493
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Istituto di Ricerche Farmcologiche (Italy) Mario Negri, Via Eritea

1988
#45
Johns,
Aspartame and Headache.
In: Wurtman and Ritter-Walkers (eds.) Dietary Phenylalamine and Brain Function. Boston: Birkhasuer, 1988, pp. 303-312
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
John Hopkins University

1988
#46
Fernstrom
Effects of Aspartame Ingestion on Large Neutral Amino Acids and Monoamine and Neurotransmitters in the Central Nervous System.
In: Wurtman and Ritter-Walker (eds.) Dietary Phenylalamine and Brain Function. Boston: Birkhauser, 1988, pp.87-96
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
N.I.M.H.

1988
#47
Maher and Kiritsy
Aspartame Decreases the Entry of Alpha-Methyldopa into the Brain of Rats.
In: Wurtman and Ritter-Walker, (eds.). Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function. Boston: Birkhasuer, 1988, pp.1222-126
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Massachuetts College
of Pharmacy

1988
#48
Elsas,
Aspartame and Migraine
New Engalnd Journal of Medicine, 1988;318(18):1201.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Emory University

1988
#49
Kim, et. al.
The effect of Aspartame on 50% Convulsion Doses of Lidocaine.
In: Wurtman and Ritter-Walker, (eds.)
Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function. Boston: Birkhauser, 1988, pp.127-130 Indiana University and Ball State University
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
University of Leeds

1988
#50
Blundell
Effects of Aspartame on Appetite and Food Intake.
In Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function, Wurtman and Ritter-Walker, Ediots, 1988, Birkhauser, Bonston pp. 275-295
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Albert Einstein
College of Medicine

1988
#51
Lipton, R.B., Newman, L.C., Cohen, J.S.
Aspartame and Headache.
New England Journal of Medicine, 1988, May 5:1200.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Headache Foundation

1988
#52
Lipton, et. al.
Aspartame as a Dietary Factor in Headache.
Neurology. 1988: 38: 356
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Headache Foundation

1988
#53
Liton, et. al.,
Aspartame as a Dietary Trigger of Headache.
Headache, 1989;29(2);90-2
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Headache Foundation

1988
#54
Koehler SM, Glaros A.
The Effect of Aspartame on Migraine Headaches
Headache, 1988; 28:10-13
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Center for Brains Sciences and Metabolism Chartible Trust and The University of Florida

1989
#55
Ptenza, DD, and el-Mallakh RS.
Aspartame: Clinical Update. Connective Medicine, 1989;53(7): 395-400
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
No Funding Source

1989
#56
Holder MD and Yirmuya, R.
Behavioral Assesment of the Toxicity of Aspartame
Pharmaclology and Bio Chemistry Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 1989;32;1726
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Institutes of Health

1989
#57
Dow-Edwards, DL. Scribani, LA. Rikey, EP, at. al.
Imparied Performance on Odor-Aversion Testing Following Prenatal Aspartame Exposure in the Guinea Pig. Neurotoxicology and Tetratology. 1989, Jul.Aug-:11(4):413-416.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Laboratory of Cerebral Metabolism
State University of New York

1989
#58
Dow-Edwards DL, Scribani LA, Riley EP,
Imparied Performance on Odor-Aversion Testing Following Prenatal Aspartame Exposure in the Guinea Pig Neurotoxicol Teratol 1989, 11(4):413-416.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
State University of New York

1989
#59
Bresnick
Excitoxins: A Possible New Mechanism for hte Pathogenesis of Ischemic Retinal Damage
Arch Opmalmology, 1989 Mar;107(3):339-341.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Institutes of Health

1989
#60
Tudoff MG, and Alleva AM,
Oral Stimulation with Aspartame Increases Hunger
Psyhsiology Behavior 1990;47(3):555-9
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
None Specified

1989
#61
Pan-Hou J, et. al.
Effect of Aspartame on N-Methyl-D Asparate Sensitive L-(311) Glutamate Binding Sites in Rat Brain Synpatic Membranes. Brain Res. 1990;520(1-2):351-353.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Setsunan University-Japan

1989
#62
Strathman
Recurrent Vulvovaginitis Resulting from Heavy Dietary Use of Aspartame
Journal Reproductive Medicine, 1991 Aug;36(8):572
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
NO Source

1989
#63
Roberts
Does Aspartame Cause Human Bran Cancer
Journal of Advancement in Medicine 4(4):231-241.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
NONE

1990
#4
Stegink LD, Filer LJ, Baker GL
Repeated ingstion of aspartame-sweetened beverahges: Further observations individuals heterozygous for phenylketonuria. * See study first done in 1979.
Metabolism 39(10):1076-1081.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
None Specified

1990
#64
Watts RS, Aspartame, Headaches and Beta Blockers
Headache 1991:31(3):181-182
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
NONE

1991
#65
McCauliffe DP, Poitras K, et. al.
Aspartame-Induced Lobular Panniculitis
Journal American Acadmy Dermatology, 1991;24(2 pt1):298-300
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
U.S. Air Force

1991
#66
Moller SF,
Effect of Aspartame and Protein Administered to Phyenlalanine-Equivalent Doses on Plasma Neutral Amino ACids, Asparatate, Insulin and Glucose in Man. Pharmacology Toxicilogy 1991;68(5):408-412
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
St. Hans Hospital, Denmark

1991
#67
Diomed L., Romano M.,Guiso G., etl. al.
Interpspecies and Interstrain Studies on the Increased Susceptibility to Metrazol-Induced Convulsions in Animals given Aspartame. Food and Chemical Toxicology 1991;29(2):101-106.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Istituto di Richerche Farmachologiche, Mario Begri, Milan Italy

1991
#68
Guiso, et. al.
Effect of Tyrosine on the Potentiation of Aspartame and Pheylalamine of Metrazol-Induced Convulsions in Rats. Food Chemical Toxicology. 1991 Dec;29(12):855-857
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Istituto di Richerche Farmachologiche, Mario Begri, Milan Italy

1992
#69
Camfield PR, Camfield CS, Dooley JM, et. al.
Aspartame Exerbates EEG Spike Wave Discharge in Children with Generalized Absence Epilepsy
A Double Blind Controlled Study. Neurology 1992;42:1000-1003.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Ontario Minstry of Health, Canada

1992
#70
Gulya AJ, Sessions RB, Troost TR, et. al.
Aspartame and Dizziness, Preliminary Results of a Prospective, Nonblinded, Prevalence and Attempted Cross-Over Study. American Journal of Otology 192 Sep:13(5):438-442.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Georgestown University

1993
#71
Shepard SE, Wakabayshi K, Nagao M. et. al.
Mutagenic Activity of Peptides and the Artificial Sweetner Aspartame After Nitrosation.
Food & Chemical Toxicology 1993;31(5);323-329.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Cancer Center Research – Institute – Japan

1993
#72
Walton RG, Hudak R, Grreenwaite RJ,
Adverse Reaction to Aspartame – Double Blinded Challenge to Patients from a Vulnerable Population.
Biological Psychiartry 1993;34(1-2);13-17
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Western Reserve Care System

1993
#73
Eshel Y, and Sarova-Pincus I
Aspartame and Seizures
Neurology, 1993;43(10):2154-2155
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
NONE

1993
#74
Kasamaki A, Uresaw S et. al.
The Effect of Food Chemicals on Cell Aging of Human Diploid Cells in Vitro Culture
Journal Toxicology Sci. 1993l18(3): 143-153
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Sapparo Medical College – Japan

1993
#75
Meldrum
Amino Acids as Dietary Excitotoxins: A Contribution to Understanding Neurodegenerative Disorders
Brain Res Rev 1993: Sep-Dec;18(3):293-314
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Institute of Psychiatry – London

1994
#76
Van Den Eeden SK, Koepsell TD, Landstreth WT Jr.
et. al.
Aspartame Ingestion and Headaches: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Neurology 1994;44(10):1787-1793
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
University of Washington

1994
#79
Olney
Excitotoxins in Foods
Neurotoxicology 1996: 15(3):535-544
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Washington University

1994
#80
Gerrad JW, Richardson JS, Donat J, et. al.
Neuropharmacological Evaltuation of Movement Disorders that are Adverse Reactions to Specific Foods Including Aspartame. International Journal of Neurosciences 1994 May;76(1-2):61-69.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
University of Saskatchewan, Canada

ADVERSE REACTIONS IDENTIFIED
ASPARTAME RESEARCH STUDIES
( Non-Industry Sponsored or Funded )

DATE
#
Researcher/Research Findings/Publication
Adverse Reaction Identified
Funding Source

1994
#81
Gerrad JW, Richardson JS, Donat J, et. al.
Neuropharmacological Evaltuation of Movement Disorders that are Adverse Reactions to Specific Foods Including Aspartame. International Journal of Neurosciences 1994 May;76(1-2):61-69.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
University of Saskatchewan, Canada

1995
#82
Barua J, Bal A,
A Health Alert: Emerging Facts About Aspartame
Journal Diabetes Associations India, 1995;35(4):92-107
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
S.L. Raheja Hospital, Bombay India

1995
#83
Sonnewald U, Muller T, Unsgaro G, Peterson SB,
et. al.
Effects of Asparate on 45 CA Influx and LDH Leakage from Nerve Cells in Culture
Neuroreport 1995 45 CA;6(2):318-320
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Research Council of Norway

1995
#84
Kulczychui A Jr.
Aspartame Induced Hives
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1995;95(2):630-640
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Washington University

1996
#85
Roberts HJ, Aspartame as a Cause of Allgeric Reactions, Including Anaphylaxis
Acrh Internal Medicine 1996;156(9);1027-1028
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Palm Beach Insitute for Medical Research

1996
#86
Olney JW, Farber NB, Spitznagel E, Robins L.
Increasing Brain Tumor Rates:
Is There A Link to Aspartame?
Journal of Neuropathylogy and Experimental Nuerology 1996;55(11);1115-1123.
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
National Institutes
Mental Health

1998
#87
Trocho C, Pardo R, Rafecas I, Virgili J, Remesar A, Fernandez-Lopez JA, Alemany M.
Formaldehyde Derived from Dietary Aspartame Binds to Tissues Compoents in Vitro
Life Sciences 1998;63(5);337-349
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
University of Barcelona Spain

2000
#88
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Due to Aspartame Disease
Roberts, HJ, MD, FACP
Staff St. Mary’s Hospital-West Palm Beach
Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients, Nov. 2000, pp 82-84
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
St.Mary’s Hospital
West Palm Beach, FL

1980
#89
Study E33-34 in Master File 134 On Aspartame
On File at the FDA Hearing Clerk’s Office
Adverse
Reaction
Identified
Submitted to FDA